Tuesday, February 17, 2009

Review Research // part 1

Speed Territory Communication

“With the birth of these new technologies and these new economic processes, one sees the birth of a sort of thinking about space that is no longer modeled on the police state of urbanization of the territory, but that extends far beyond the limits of urbanism and architecture. . . .THe Ecole des Ponts et Chaussees and it capital importance in political rationality in France are part. . .It was not architects, but engineers and builders of bridges, roads, viaducts, railways, as well as the polytechnicians [who practically controlled the French railraods] - those are the people who thought out space. [architects]. . . are not the technicians or engineers of the three great variables - territory, communication, and speed. These escape the domain of architects.” - Foucault

WORLD HERITAGE This is an interesting topic we came upon, the idea of preserving these various locations all over the globe as a means of providing future generations with knowledge on past cultural and natural landscapes. It is a sort of historical interconectedness between the 878 sites that they are trying to achieve. Heritage [past legacy, present conditions, and future] can have a universal application without regard to a particular territory. We are taking this idea of UNESCO's world heritage and trying to apply the three terms of our studio title acceleration, communication, and territory to it.
Acceleration/speed is extremely prevalent within this preservation project; the idea of slowing down the acceleration of these site in regards to their immediate surroundings, the anti-speed you could say, since a topic that continually comes up within the research of the heritage project it is a particular care to keep these sites from decaying over the years, but rather to flourish and remain in tack no matter how much circulation passes through. Creating a network of these 'time capsules' internationally while the rest of the world continues to age and progress is an interesting concept to us .
Territory is another idea that is applied in a similar way that speed is in that it is the idea of anti-territory; "the sites are monuments that posses a universal value and should be shared by all mankind" .
Communication is trying to create a way that these sites truly can become universal and any one person anywhere on the globe can have access to these sites whether it be physical or virtual, that one can visit and learn from these time capsules of history. We want to create a new network of transportation in conjuction with the use of current and future technologies in a virtual world to make all 878 sites accessible at any time.

The world heritage team hopes to transmit the valueable information within these sites to future generations. But there is no way to avoid eventual decay and change within the natural and cultural sites, so we came up with the proposition of cataloging the sites. The catalog process can capture the sites as they are today and continue to do so at a predetermined interval throughout their lifespan getting the various stages of change. This would allow for them to remain as they are for an infinite amount of time.
We realize though in taking pre-existing sites, some of which are already their own 'eco-systems' [a natural unit in an area functioning together on a physical and biological level], there come both advantages and disadvantages. Whenever we add something to the site whether it is in a physical world or virtual there will be a reaction from the existing system. For example the addition of a network of transportation within the specific regions containing various sites, creating a whole new sub-economy with the new flow of traffic and visitors. The reactions of these sites could develop in the appearance of a fractal [ A rough fragmented shape that can be split into parts each of which is reduced in size, a copy of the whole, a property called self-similarity. In the world of Math a fractile is an equation that undergoes iteration, a form of feedback - wikipedia]. The reactions in this sense would be based on a process of repetition, that creates infinite complexity. So in using pre-existing sites and conditions that have such value in eyes all over the globe, we are presenting ourselves with a difficult task of trying to assimilate the exisiting and our new ideas of territory, speed and communication.

Cultural CriteriaI. "to represent a masterpiece of human creative genius"; II. "to exhibit an important interchange of human values, over a span of time or within a cultural area of the world, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design"; III. "to bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which is living or which has disappeared"; IV. "to be an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates (a) significant stage(s) in human history"; V. "to be an outstanding example of a traditional human settlement, land-use, or sea-use which is representative of a culture (or cultures), or human interaction with the environment especially when it has become vulnerable under the impact of irreversible change"; VI. "to be directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs, with artistic and literary works of outstanding universal significance. (The Committee considers that this criterion should preferably be used in conjunction with other criteria.)

Natural CriteriaVII. "to contain superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance"; VIII. "to be outstanding examples representing major stages of Earth's history, including the record of life, significant on-going geological processes in the development of landforms, or significant geomorphic or physiographic features"; IX. "to be outstanding examples representing significant on-going ecological and biological processes in the evolution and development of terrestrial, fresh water, coastal and marine ecosystems and communities of plants and animals"; X. "to contain the most important and significant natural habitats for in-site conservation of biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation." Heritage is our legacy from the past, what we live with today, and what we pass on to future generations. Our cultural and natural heritage are both irreplaceable sources of life and inspiration. Places as unique and diverse as the wilds of East Africa’s Serengeti, the Pyramids of Egypt, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia and the Baroque cathedrals of Latin America make up our world’s heritage.
What makes the concept of World Heritage exceptional is its universal application. World Heritage sites belong to all the peoples of the world, irrespective of the territory on which they are located.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) seeks to encourage the identification, protection and preservation of cultural and natural heritage around the world considered to be of outstanding value to humanity. This is embodied in an international treaty called the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, adopted by UNESCO in 1972.

UNESCO's World Heritage mission is to:
1. encourage countries to sign the World Heritage Convention and to ensure the protection of their natural and cultural heritage
2. encourage States Parties to the Convention to nominate sites within their national territory for inclusion on the World Heritage List 3. encourage States Parties to establish management plans and set up reporting systems on the state of conservation of their World Heritage sites 4. help States Parties safeguard World Heritage properties by providing technical assistance and professional training 5. provide emergency assistance for World Heritage sites in immediate danger 6. support States Parties' public awareness-building activities for World Heritage conservation 7. encourage participation of the local population in the preservation of their cultural and natural heritage 8. encourage international cooperation in the conservation of our world's cultural and natural heritage


City of Graz - Historic Centre (1999)
Historic Centre of the City of Salzburg (1996)
Walled City of Baku with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower (2000)
Historic Mosque City of Bagerhat (1985)
City of Potosí (1987)
Historic City of Sucre (1991)
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Old Bridge Area of the Old City of Mostar (2005)
Ancient City of Nessebar (1983)
Historic Quarter of the Seaport City of Valparaíso (2003)
Ancient City of Ping Yao (1997)
Historic City of Trogir (1997)
Old City of Dubrovnik (1979, 1994)
Dominican Republic
Colonial City of Santo Domingo (1990)
City of Quito (1978)
Historic Fortified City of Carcassonne (1997)
Le Havre, the City Rebuilt by Auguste Perret (2005)
Hanseatic City of Lübeck (1987)
Medieval City of Rhodes (1988)
Holy See
Historic Centre of Rome, the Properties of the Holy See in that City Enjoying
Extraterritorial Rights and San Paolo Fuori le Mura (1980, 1990) * 1
Vatican City (1984)
Samarra Archaeological City (2007)
Old City of Acre (2001)
White City of Tel-Aviv -- the Modern Movement (2003)
City of Verona (2000)
City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto (1994, 1996)
Ferrara, City of the Renaissance, and its Po Delta (1995, 1999) 2
Historic Centre of Rome, the Properties of the Holy See in that City Enjoying
Extraterritorial Rights and San Paolo Fuori le Mura (1980, 1990) * 3
Historic Centre of the City of Pienza (1996)
Jerusalem (Site proposed by Jordan)
Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (1981)
City of Luxembourg: its Old Quarters and Fortifications (1994)
City of Valletta (1980)
Ancient Maya City of Calakmul, Campeche (2002)
Central University City Campus of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) (2007)
El Tajin, Pre-Hispanic City (1992)
Historic Centre of Mexico City and Xochimilco (1987)
Pre-Hispanic City and National Park of Palenque (1987)
Pre-Hispanic City of Chichen-Itza (1988)
Pre-Hispanic City of Teotihuacan (1987)
Historic City of Meknes (1996)
Portuguese City of Mazagan (El Jadida) (2004)
Historic Area of Willemstad, Inner City and Harbour, Netherlands Antilles (1997)
Buddhist Ruins of Takht-i-Bahi and Neighbouring City Remains at Sahr-i-Bahlol (1980)
City of Cuzco (1983)
Historical Centre of the City of Arequipa (2000)
Old City of Zamość (1992)
Russian Federation
Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent (2003)
Historical Centre of the City of Yaroslavl (2005)
Historic City of Toledo (1986)
Old City of Salamanca (1988)
Sri Lanka
Ancient City of Polonnaruwa (1982)
Ancient City of Sigiriya (1982)
Sacred City of Anuradhapura (1982)
Sacred City of Kandy (1988)
Historic Inner City of Paramaribo (2002)
Old City of Berne (1983)
Syrian Arab Republic
Ancient City of Aleppo (1986)
Ancient City of Bosra (1980)
Ancient City of Damascus (1979)
Historic City of Ayutthaya (1991)
City of Safranbolu (1994)
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
City of Bath (1987)
Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City (2004)
Historic Quarter of the City of Colonia del Sacramento (1995)
Old City of Sana'a (1986)

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